Since the beginning of the year, some states and cities have had an outbreak of mumps. In the Federal District, for example, until September 24, 1,913 cases of the disease were registered by the Epidemiological Surveillance Department (Divep) of the Secretariat of Health. In 2015, only 130 cases were reported in the region from July to December.from May to October this year, 238 cases were registered. An impressive increase, since, in the same period last year, no outbreak of the disease was reported in the state. Most children are out of danger. This is because newer vaccines have greater potential for immunization against the virus in its current form. The main affected population range is between 20 and 49 years old, vaccinated the longest before 2002.
But what if you are pregnant? How to prevent disease? We spoke with the infectious disease doctor Carolina Ponzi of the Unimed System in Chapecó to find out how pregnant women can protect themselves from the disease outbreaks. Check out:
What are the risks of mumps during pregnancy?
Although mumps are associated with increased fetal losses in the first trimester of pregnancy, mumps usually do not pose risks to the fetus and the pregnant woman, unlike rubella, for example. It is a benign respiratory disease, which, in rare cases, can lead to few complications, such as inflammation of the testicles, pancreas, ovaries, and brain. So there is no reason to panic or boast. But prevention is always important for pregnant women.
Can pregnant women take the vaccine against mumps?
Pregnant women can not be vaccinated against mumps because it is a vaccine made with live attenuated viruses and is usually associated with rubella and measles virus in the same immunization. Therefore, it is formally contraindicated for pregnant women. And gestation should be avoided until thirty days after receiving the vaccine.
How can pregnant women protect themselves from mumps if they are in an outbreak region?
If there is an outbreak of mumps in the community, the pregnant woman should avoid enclosed places with crowds of people. Hand hygiene is also recommended as it helps prevent the transmission of various other diseases. In the event of outbreaks, it is also recommended that the competent agencies carry out the active search of nonimmune persons or with an incomplete vaccination schedule to receive the vaccine, in order to reduce the circulation of the virus. In addition, the close contacts of pregnant women should be vaccinated when there is an outbreak, in order to reduce the risk of transmission. It is the cocoon strategy, which aims to protect people around the pregnant woman, who can not receive the vaccine.
When an adult has ever come in contact with an infected person, is it worth taking the vaccine or can it potentiate the virus?
Those who are between the ages of 20 and 49, only received one dose of the double viral vaccine and had contact with a person with mumps should, yes, receive the MMR vaccine. There is no risk of potentiating the virus.
Who took the vaccine before 2002 is no longer immunized against the virus?
Universal vaccination against mumps began in 1998, first in a single dose. As of 2002, two doses of the vaccine were used. So people who have received the vaccine before 2002 have what may be considered incomplete vaccination, and may not be immune to the disease. It should also be considered that antibodies against mumps may not be perennial, that is, they may decrease over the years, and therefore cases have been observed in adolescents and young adults. If you do not know if you have been vaccinated or are not sure if you have received two doses of the vaccine, there is no danger or contraindication for immunization, even if again.